Failure Analysis and Prevention
This article provides a background of friction-bearing failures due to overheating. The failures of locomotive axles caused by overheated traction-motor support bearings are discussed. The article also describes liquid-metal embrittlement (LME) in steel. It examines the results of various axle studies, with illustrations and concludes with information on the simulation of the LME mechanism.
George F. Vander Voort, Failures of Locomotive Axles, Failure Analysis and Prevention, Vol 11, ASM Handbook, Edited By William T. Becker, Roch J. Shipley, ASM International, 2002, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001822
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