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This article illustrates the defects, which result because of poor-quality welds in the bridge components. The cracks resulting from the use of low fatigue strength details are also discussed. The article describes the effect of out-of-plane distortion in floor-beam-girder connection plates, multiple-girder diaphragm connection plate, and tied-arch floor beams.

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John W. Fisher, Failures of Bridge Components, Failure Analysis and Prevention, Vol 11, ASM Handbook, Edited By William T. Becker, Roch J. Shipley, ASM International, 2002,

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