Failure Analysis and Prevention
This article describes the characteristics of tubing of heat exchangers with respect to general corrosion, stress-corrosion cracking, selective leaching, and oxygen-cell attack, with examples. It illustrates the examination of failed parts of heat exchangers by using sample selection, visual examination, microscopic examination, chemical analysis, and mechanical tests. The article explains corrosion fatigue of tubing of heat exchangers caused by aggressive environment and cyclic stress. It also discusses the effects of design, welding practices, and elevated temperatures on the failures of heat exchangers.