Welding Fundamentals and Processes
This article presents the structural attributes and internal characteristics of spot welds as well as the commonly inspected imperfections in resistance welds. It describes the industrial requirements for weld quality. Commonly performed destructive evaluations, namely, manual testing, quasi-static mechanical tests, dynamic mechanical tests, and metallographic examination, are reviewed. The article reviews weld-quality monitoring using various process signals and provides a discussion on the on-line and off-line nondestructive evaluation methods of spot weld quality.