Welding Fundamentals and Processes
This article provides an overview of integrated weld modeling and discusses the fundamentals of the underlying physics and methodologies involved in process modeling. It presents approaches for microstructure modeling that help to predict phase fractions as well as grain size in the heat-affected zone and weld metal region as a function of alloy composition and thermal cycles. The article discusses the uses of computational thermodynamic and kinetic tools. It describes the concept of performance modeling, whose goal relates to the prediction of weldability, geometrical distortion, and/or locked-in residual stress as a function of material, restraint, process, and process parameters as well as service temperature. Finally, the article presents a case study, evaluating the use of X-65 steels using the E-WeldPredictor tool.