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Ultrasonic welding (UW), as a solid-state joining process, uses an ultrasonic energy source and pressure to induce oscillating shears between the faying surfaces to produce metallurgical bonds between a wide range of metal sheets and wires. This article reviews the models of the ultrasonic welding with an emphasis on governing equations, material behavior, and heat generation of the process. It discusses the resulting factors, namely, vibration, friction, temperature, and plastic deformation as well as the bonding strength and its mechanism.

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