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The ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) process consists of building up solid metal objects by ultrasonically welding successive layers of metal tape into a three-dimensional shape with periodic machining operations to create detailed features of the resultant object. This article provides information on the materials, welding parameters, process consumables, procedures, and applications of the UAM. It describes the methods for determining metallurgical and mechanical properties of solid metal parts to assess the range of materials and applications for which the process is suited. These methods include peel testing, push-pin testing, and microhardness/nanohardness testing. The article also reviews the issues to be addressed in maintaining UAM fabrication quality.

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Karl Graff, Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing, Welding Fundamentals and Processes, Vol 6A, ASM Handbook, Edited By T. Lienert, T. Siewert, S. Babu, V. Acoff, ASM International, 2011, p 731–741,

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