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Three types of energy are used primarily as direct heat sources for fusion welding: electric arcs, laser beams, and electron beams. This article reviews the physical phenomena that influence the input-energy distribution of the heat source for fusion welding. It also discusses several simplified and detailed heat-source models that have been used in the modeling of arc welding, high-energy-density welding, and resistance welding.

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S.S. Glickstein, E. Friedman, R.P. Martukanitz, Characterization and Modeling of the Heat Source, Welding Fundamentals and Processes, Vol 6A, ASM Handbook, Edited By T. Lienert, T. Siewert, S. Babu, V. Acoff, ASM International, 2011, p 35–42,

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