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This article discusses three distinct mechanisms of bonding for solid-state (forge) welding processes, namely, contaminant displacement/interatomic bonding, dissociation of retained oxides, and decomposition of the interfacial structure. It explains the processes that can be characterized as having two stages: heating and forging. The article also includes a table that illustrates weld strengths as a function of annealing temperature for a range of materials.

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Jerry E. Gould, Mechanisms of Bonding for Solid-State Welding Processes, Welding Fundamentals and Processes, Vol 6A, ASM Handbook, Edited By T. Lienert, T. Siewert, S. Babu, V. Acoff, ASM International, 2011, p 171–178,

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