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This article provides a history of electron and laser beam welding, discusses the properties of electrons and photons used for welding, and contrasts electron and laser beam welding. It presents a comparison of the electron and laser beam welding processes. The article also illustrates constant power density boundaries, showing the relationship between the focused beam diameter and the absorbed beam power for approximate regions of keyhole-mode welding, conduction-mode welding, cutting, and drilling.

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J.W. Elmer, P.W. Hochanadel, K. Lachenberg, C. Caristan, T. Webber, 2011. "Introduction to High Energy Density Electron and Laser Beam Welding", Welding Fundamentals and Processes, T. Lienert, T. Siewert, S. Babu, V. Acoff

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