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This article focuses on the general internal state variable method, and its simplification, for single-parameter models, in which the microstructure evolution may be treated as an isokinetic reaction. It explains that isokinetic microstructure models are applied to diffusional transformations in fusion welding, covering particle dissolution, growth, and coarsening of precipitates in the heat-affected zone. The article discusses the versatility of the internal state variable approach in modeling of nonisothermal transformations for various materials and processes. It describes the process models applied to predict the microstructure evolution in Al-Mg-Si alloys during multistage thermal processing involving heat treatment and welding. The article also provides information on the microstructure models exploited in engineering design to optimize the load-bearing capacity of welded aluminum components.

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Ole Runar Myhr, Øystein Grong, 2011. "Modeling of Metallurgical Microstructure Evolution in Fusion Welding", Welding Fundamentals and Processes, T. Lienert, T. Siewert, S. Babu, V. Acoff

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