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This article discusses the most common methods of melting steels, namely, electric arc and induction melting. It describes the classification of refractories by an index of the “basicity” of the slag formed on the steel surface. The steel melt refinements are classified as treatments by either converter metallurgy or ladle metallurgy. The article provides a detailed discussion on the converter and ladle metallurgy. The converter metallurgy includes melt refinement in argon oxygen decarburization (AOD) vessels and vacuum oxygen decarburization (VODC) in a converter vessel. The ladle metallurgy includes vacuum induction degassing, vacuum oxygen decarburization, and vacuum ladle degassing.

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Steel Melt Processing, Casting, Vol 15, ASM Handbook, Edited By Srinath Viswanathan, Diran Apelian, Raymond J. Donahue, Babu DasGupta, Michael Gywn, John L. Jorstad, Raymond W. Monroe, Mahi Sahoo, Thomas E. Prucha, Daniel Twarog, ASM International, 2008, p 206–229,

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