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The properties of copper alloys occur in unique combinations found in no other alloy system. This article focuses on the major and minor alloying additions and their impact on the properties of copper. It describes major alloying additions, such as zinc, tin, lead, aluminum, silicon, nickel, beryllium, chromium, and iron. The article discusses minor alloying additions, including antimony, bismuth, selenium, manganese, and phosphorus. Copper alloys can be cast by many processes, including sand casting, permanent mold casting, precision casting, high-pressure die casting, and low-pressure die casting. The article provides information on the types of copper castings and tabulates the nominal chemical composition and mechanical properties of several cast alloys.

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Kumar Sadayappan, Mahi Sahoo, Harold T. Michels, Copper and Copper Alloy Castings, Casting, Vol 15, ASM Handbook, Edited By Srinath Viswanathan, Diran Apelian, Raymond J. Donahue, Babu DasGupta, Michael Gywn, John L. Jorstad, Raymond W. Monroe, Mahi Sahoo, Thomas E. Prucha, Daniel Twarog, ASM International, 2008, p 1085–1094,

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