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This article discusses distortion due to differences in solidification times and its two solutions. The solutions include compensating the distortion in a pattern in the direction opposite to that of the observed distortion and increasing the section thickness of an end member and subsequently machining the section to the desired size. The distortion due to mold restraint and its elimination by redesigning or by adding tie bars are described. The article reviews the distortion that occurs in heat treating and its solution. It concludes with a discussion on the influence of alloy to be cast on distortion.

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Design Problems Involving Distortion, Casting, Vol 15, ASM Handbook, Edited By Srinath Viswanathan, Diran Apelian, Raymond J. Donahue, Babu DasGupta, Michael Gywn, John L. Jorstad, Raymond W. Monroe, Mahi Sahoo, Thomas E. Prucha, Daniel Twarog, ASM International, 2008,

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