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This article discusses the types of patterns used for a specific application such as loose patterns, match plate patterns, cope and drag patterns, and special patterns. It describes the principles of the patternmaking techniques used to make expendable molds and for metal casting processes such as die casting and permanent mold casting. The article reviews the pattern features and mold production considerations used in pattern design, namely, parting line considerations, addition of gates and risers, core prints, and locating points. It discusses the pattern allowances for ensuring a dimensionally correct final pattern. A wide variety of materials and advanced composite materials used in the manufacture of patterns are discussed. The article reviews the factors influencing the selection of type of patterns for specific castings.

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Robert C. Voigt, Patterns and Patternmaking, Casting, Vol 15, ASM Handbook, Edited By Srinath Viswanathan, Diran Apelian, Raymond J. Donahue, Babu DasGupta, Michael Gywn, John L. Jorstad, Raymond W. Monroe, Mahi Sahoo, Thomas E. Prucha, Daniel Twarog, ASM International, 2008, p 488–496,

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