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In high-iron-tonnage operations, the cupola remains the most efficient source of continuous high volumes of iron needed to satisfy high production foundries or the multiple casting machines of centrifugal pipe producers. This article explores successful improvement technologies in cupola equipment, including preheated air blast, recuperative hot blast systems, and duplex electric holders. It discusses the shell, intermittent or continuous tapping, tuyere and blower systems, refractory lining, water-cooled cupolas, emission-control systems, and storage and handling of the charge materials. The article provides a discussion on control tests for cupola, including the chill test and mechanical test. It concludes with information on specialized cupolas such as cokeless cupola and plasma-fired cupola.

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William L. Powell, Alan P. Druschitz, Jim Frost, Cupola Furnaces, Casting, Vol 15, ASM Handbook, Edited By Srinath Viswanathan, Diran Apelian, Raymond J. Donahue, Babu DasGupta, Michael Gywn, John L. Jorstad, Raymond W. Monroe, Mahi Sahoo, Thomas E. Prucha, Daniel Twarog, ASM International, 2008, p 99–107,

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