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Sand mold and permanent mold casting are the major methods for shape casting of steels, with production closely split among green sand, chemically bonded sand, and permanent mold processes. This article describes key aspects of the steel casting process, including steel solidification characteristics, melting practices, melt treatment, and feeding of the molten steel into the mold used in steel foundries. It discusses the features of melting furnaces used in direct arc melting and induction melting. It reviews factors such as wall thickness and designing for avoidance of hot spots. The article explains the sand casting and permanent mold casting...

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