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Sand mold and permanent mold castings are the major methods for shape casting of steels, with production closely split among green sand, chemically bonded sand, and permanent mold processes. This article describes the steel solidification characteristics, melting practices, melt treatment, and feeding of the molten steel into the mold used in steel foundries. It discusses the features of the melting furnaces used in direct arc melting, induction melting, and boiling. The article describes the sand casting and permanent mold casting of steel. The process design and castings of thin sections are also discussed.

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