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This article provides an overview of exogenous and indigenous inclusions. It discusses the general concepts of phase diagrams, thermochemical relationships, and reaction rates, along with their practical significance. The article describes the most common techniques for controlling the occurrence of inclusions in any cast metal. The article provides a discussion on the inclusions in ferrous and nonferrous alloys. The ferrous and nonferrous alloys include steels, cast irons, aluminum alloys, copper alloys, and magnesium alloys.

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Paul K. Trojan, Inclusion-Forming Reactions, Casting, Vol 15, ASM Handbook, Edited By Srinath Viswanathan, Diran Apelian, Raymond J. Donahue, Babu DasGupta, Michael Gywn, John L. Jorstad, Raymond W. Monroe, Mahi Sahoo, Thomas E. Prucha, Daniel Twarog, ASM International, 2008, p 74–83,

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