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Grain refinement in aluminum casting alloys tends to reduce the amount of porosity and the size of the pores and to improve mechanical properties, especially fatigue strength. This article provides information on measurement of grain size in alloys and describes the mechanisms of grain refinement in aluminum casting alloys. It reviews the use of boron and titanium as a grain refiner for aluminum casting alloys. The article discusses the best practices for grain refinement in various aluminum casting alloys. These include aluminum-silicon casting alloys, aluminum-silicon-copper casting alloys, aluminum-silicon-copper casting alloys, aluminum-zinc-magnesium casting alloys, and aluminum-magnesium casting alloys. The article also discusses benefits of grain refinement in aluminum casting alloys.

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G.K. Sigworth, T.A. Kuhn, Grain Refinement of Aluminum Casting Alloys, Casting, Vol 15, ASM Handbook, Edited By Srinath Viswanathan, Diran Apelian, Raymond J. Donahue, Babu DasGupta, Michael Gywn, John L. Jorstad, Raymond W. Monroe, Mahi Sahoo, Thomas E. Prucha, Daniel Twarog, ASM International, 2008, p 255–262,

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