Casting can be done with either expendable molds for one-time use or permanent molds for reuse many times. This article lists various methods used to fabricate expendable molds from permanent patterns. The methods include molding of sand with clay, inorganic binders, or organic resins; shell molding of sand with a thin resin-bonded shell; no-bond vacuum molding of sand; plaster-mold casting; ceramic-mold casting; rammed graphite molding; and magnetic (no-bond) molding of ferrous shot. The article tabulates a general comparison of casting methods and discusses the basic requirements of foundry molds.
Brian V. Smith, Introduction: Expendable Mold Processes with Permanent Patterns, Casting, Vol 15, ASM Handbook, Edited By Srinath Viswanathan, Diran Apelian, Raymond J. Donahue, Babu DasGupta, Michael Gywn, John L. Jorstad, Raymond W. Monroe, Mahi Sahoo, Thomas E. Prucha, Daniel Twarog, ASM International, 2008, p 525–527, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005241
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