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This article provides a detailed discussion on the causes of formation of shrinkage porosity and gas porosity along with the methods involved in eliminating them. It discusses the process of porosity formation and the factors affecting porosity formation, including alloy composition, external pressure, and cooling conditions.

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Qingyou Han, Shrinkage Porosity and Gas Porosity, Casting, Vol 15, ASM Handbook, Edited By Srinath Viswanathan, Diran Apelian, Raymond J. Donahue, Babu DasGupta, Michael Gywn, John L. Jorstad, Raymond W. Monroe, Mahi Sahoo, Thomas E. Prucha, Daniel Twarog, ASM International, 2008, p 370–374,

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