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Depending on the size and application, castings manufactured with the expendable mold process and with expendable patterns increase the tolerance from 1.5 to 3.5 times that of the permanent pattern methods. This article reviews the two major expendable pattern methods, such as lost foam and investment casting. It discusses Replicast casting process involving patternmaking with polystyrene and a ceramic shell mold. The article contains a table that summarizes the differences in the steps of casting a part between the permanent pattern and the expendable pattern methods.

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Brian V. Smith, Introduction: Expendable Mold Processes with Expendable Patterns, Casting, Vol 15, ASM Handbook, Edited By Srinath Viswanathan, Diran Apelian, Raymond J. Donahue, Babu DasGupta, Michael Gywn, John L. Jorstad, Raymond W. Monroe, Mahi Sahoo, Thomas E. Prucha, Daniel Twarog, ASM International, 2008, p 637–639,

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