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Shell molding is used for making production quantities of castings that range in weight from a few ounces to approximately 180 kg (400 lb), in both ferrous and nonferrous metals. This article lists the limitations or disadvantages of shell mold casting. It describes the two methods for preparation of resin-sand mixture for shell molding, namely, mixing resin and sand according to conventional dry mixing techniques, and coating the sand with resin. Shaping of shell molds and cores from resin sand mixtures is accomplished in machines. The article discusses the major steps in producing a mold or core and describes the problems most frequently encountered in shell-mold casting. The problems include mold cracking, soft molds, low hot tensile strength of molds, peelback, and mold shift. The article concludes with information on examples that provide some relative cost comparisons between shell molding and green sand molding.

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Scott McIntyre, Shell Molding and Shell Coremaking, Casting, Vol 15, ASM Handbook, Edited By Srinath Viswanathan, Diran Apelian, Raymond J. Donahue, Babu DasGupta, Michael Gywn, John L. Jorstad, Raymond W. Monroe, Mahi Sahoo, Thomas E. Prucha, Daniel Twarog, ASM International, 2008, p 598–616,

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