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Analysis of bifilms provides a simple, powerful, and elegant concept to explain many features of the metallurgy of castings. This article describes the effects of bifilms in metals. Mechanisms for the entrainment of bifilms are reviewed. The article describes the effect of furling and unfurling on mechanical properties of the solidified cast metal. It provides a discussion on the mechanisms of unfurling to determine the casting properties of the metals. These include gas precipitation, shrinkage, linear contraction, dendrite pushing, and nucleation and growth of intermetallics. The article also describes the role of bifilm defects in fracture.

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John Campbell, The Oxide Film Defect: The Bifilm, Casting, Vol 15, ASM Handbook, Edited By Srinath Viswanathan, Diran Apelian, Raymond J. Donahue, Babu DasGupta, Michael Gywn, John L. Jorstad, Raymond W. Monroe, Mahi Sahoo, Thomas E. Prucha, Daniel Twarog, ASM International, 2008, p 362–369,

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