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Metal transparency and interaction with X-rays have been recognized as obvious candidate principles from which methods for in situ monitoring of solidification processes could be developed. This article describes the use of X-ray imaging-based techniques to investigate interface morphology evolution, solute transport, and various process phenomena at spatiotemporal resolutions. It discusses the three viable imaging techniques made available by synchrotron radiation for the real-time investigation of solidification microstructures in alloys. These include two-dimensional X-ray topography, two-dimensional X-ray radiography, and ultra-fast three-dimensional X-ray tomography.

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