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This article examines critical features of four key areas of modeling transport phenomena associated with casting processes. These include heat and species transport in a metal alloy, flow of the liquid metal, tracking of the free metal-gas surface, and inducement of metal flow via electromagnetic fields. The conservation equations that represent important physical phenomena during casting processes are presented. The article provides a discussion on how the physical phenomena can be solved. There is a well-established array of general and specific computational tools that can be readily applied to modeling casting processes. The article summarizes the key features of the conservation equations in these tools.

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