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Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) is used to eliminate porosity in castings. This article provides the history and an overview of the HIP system. It illustrates the reasons for using HIP and discusses the criteria for selecting HIP process parameters. The main mechanisms by which pores are eliminated during HIP are reviewed. The article describes the effect of HIP on the mechanical properties, shape, and structure of castings as well as the effect of inclusions on as-HIPed properties. It examines the problems encountered in HIP and their solution. The article concludes with information on the economics of HIP system.

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Stephen J. Mashl, Hot Isostatic Pressing of Castings, Casting, Vol 15, ASM Handbook, Edited By Srinath Viswanathan, Diran Apelian, Raymond J. Donahue, Babu DasGupta, Michael Gywn, John L. Jorstad, Raymond W. Monroe, Mahi Sahoo, Thomas E. Prucha, Daniel Twarog, ASM International, 2008, p 408–416,

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