This article discusses the methods, equipment, and theory for pouring, solidifying, and stripping steel ingots. It describes the two basic types of pouring methods: top pouring and bottom pouring. The equipment includes hot tops, ingot molds, and stools. The design of the ingot is dictated by the application and type of steel involved. The article concludes with information on the applications of solidification simulation.
This article outlines the advantages of the steel continuous casting, along with its developments and challenges for improvement. It describes the process of the steel continuous casting. The article provides a description of the design and layout of a steelmaking facility for continuous casting of steel. It reviews the trends in the steel industry, such as near-net shape casting, the use of tundish metallurgy, and pouring stream protection. The article discusses the use and capabilities of different molds for steel continuous casting. These include thin-wall tube-type molds, solid molds, and plate molds. The article explains the operations for productivity improvements and quality improvements in steel continuous casting. It reviews the applications of horizontal continuous casting in casting steel. An emphasis on the development of continuous casting depending on control systems and automation, with the objective of maintaining high quality and high productivity, is also provided.
2008. "Steel Castings", Casting, Srinath Viswanathan, Diran Apelian, Raymond J. Donahue, Babu DasGupta, Michael Gywn, John L. Jorstad, Raymond W. Monroe, Mahi Sahoo, Thomas E. Prucha, Daniel Twarog
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