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The term cast iron designates a group of materials that contain more than one constituent in their microstructure due to excess carbon that result in unique characteristics such as the fracture appearance and graphite morphology. This article discusses the classification of cast iron and the various metallurgical aspects, such as composition, alloying element, solidification, and graphite morphologies, of different types of cast iron. It describes the physical properties for various cast irons and the influence of microstructure and chemical composition on each property. The article provides a detailed account on thermal properties, conductive properties, magnetic properties, and acoustic properties of cast iron. It also discusses heat treatment, namely, stress relieving, annealing, normalizing, through hardening, and surface hardening. The article presents a discussion on the welding, machining and grinding, and coating of the types of cast iron.

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