Principles of Solidification
This article discusses the application of thermodynamic in the form of phase diagrams for visually representing the state of a material and for understanding the solidification of alloys. It presents the derivation of the relationship between the Gibbs energy functions and phase diagrams, which forms the basis for the calculation of phase diagrams (CALPHAD) method. The article also discusses the calculation of phase diagrams and solidification by using the Scheil-Gulliver equation.
This article discusses selected highlights of thermodynamic relationships during solidification and nucleation kinetics behavior in connection with the basis of nucleation treatments, such as grain refinement and inoculation, to provide a summary of nucleation phenomena during casting. Nucleation during solidification is a thermally activated process involving a fluctuational growth in the sizes of clusters of solids. The article describes nucleation phenomenon such as homogeneous nucleation and heterogeneous nucleation. It discusses various grain refinement models, such as carbide-boride model, free growth model, and constitutional undercooling model. The article concludes with a section on thermal analysis techniques for assessing grain-refining characteristics during master alloy processing.
2008. "Principles of Solidification", Casting, Srinath Viswanathan, Diran Apelian, Raymond J. Donahue, Babu DasGupta, Michael Gywn, John L. Jorstad, Raymond W. Monroe, Mahi Sahoo, Thomas E. Prucha, Daniel Twarog
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