Corrosion: Environments and Industries
In a typical semiconductor integrated circuits (SICs) component, corrosion may be observed at the chip level and at the termination area of the lead frames that are plated with a solderable metal or alloy, such as tin and tin-lead alloys that are susceptible to corrosion. This article focuses on the key factors contributing to corrosion of electronic components, namely, chemicals (salts containing halides, sulfides, acids, and alkalis), temperature, air (polluted air), moisture, contact between dissimilar metals in a wet condition, applied potential differences, and stress. It discusses the chip corrosion and oxidation of tin and tin-lead alloys (solders) in SIC. The article also addresses the corrosion of the device terminations resulting in lead (termination) tarnishing that are caused by various factors, including galvanic corrosion, chemical residues, base metal migration and plating additives.