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This article describes the mechanisms of differential corrosion cells corrosion, microbiologically influenced corrosion, and stray direct current corrosion. It discusses the most common causes and contributing factors for corrosion and stress-corrosion cracking, as well as prevention, mitigation, detection, and repair processes.

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John A. Beavers, Neil G. Thompson, External Corrosion of Oil and Natural Gas Pipelines, Corrosion: Environments and Industries, Vol 13C, ASM Handbook, Edited By Stephen D. Cramer, Bernard S. Covino, Jr., ASM International, 2006, p 1015–1025,

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