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Batteries and fuel cells are popular forms of portable electrical energy sources. This article discusses the operation and corrosion problems inherent in batteries and fuel cells. Batteries are classified into two groups: primary or nonrechargeable batteries and secondary or rechargeable batteries. Fuel cells are classified into five types: phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC), solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell, alkaline electrolyte fuel cell, molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), and solid oxide fuel cell. The article presents reactions that occur during charging and discharging of lead-acid batteries, PAFC, and MCFC.

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Chester M. Dacres, Corrosion in Portable Energy Sources, Corrosion: Environments and Industries, Vol 13C, ASM Handbook, Edited By Stephen D. Cramer, Bernard S. Covino, Jr., ASM International, 2006, p 501–503,

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