The rate and form of corrosion that occur in a particular situation depend on many complex variables. This article discusses the rate of corrosion of lead in natural and domestic water depending on the degree of water hardness caused by calcium and magnesium salts. Lead exhibits consistent durability in all types of atmospheric exposure, including industrial, rural, and marine. The article tabulates the corrosion of lead in various natural outdoor atmospheres and the corrosion of lead alloys in various soils. It explains the factors that influence in initiating or accelerating corrosion: galvanic coupling, differential aeration, alkalinity, and stray currents. The resistance of lead and lead alloys to corrosion by a wide variety of chemicals is attributed to the polarization of local anodes caused by the formation of a relatively insoluble surface film of lead corrosion products. The article also provides information on the corrosion rate of lead in chemical environments.
Safaa J. Alhassan, Corrosion of Lead and Lead Alloys, Corrosion: Materials, Vol 13B, ASM Handbook, Edited By Stephen D. Cramer, Bernard S. Covino, Jr., ASM International, 2005, p 195–204, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003819
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