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This article provides an overview of the corrosion theory relating to refractories on the basis of acid/base reactions, thermodynamics, and kinetic considerations. The tests to evaluate refractory corrosive wear are reviewed. The article describes the specific refractories used in steel, glass, aluminum, and chemical-resistant applications. Specific material issues that should be considered or evaluated when choosing or using refractory materials are discussed.

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James P. Bennett, Kyei-Sing Kwong, George Oprea, Michel Rigaud, Stephen M. Winder, Performance of Refractories in Severe Environments, Corrosion: Materials, Vol 13B, ASM Handbook, Edited By Stephen D. Cramer, Bernard S. Covino, Jr., ASM International, 2005, p 547–564,

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