This article describes the processes involved in the production of hafnium and its alloys. It discusses the physical, mechanical and chemical properties of hafnium. The aqueous corrosion testing of hafnium and its alloys is detailed. The article reviews the corrosion resistance of hafnium in specific media, namely, water, steam, hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, sulfuric acid, alkalis, organics, molten metals, and gases. Forms of corrosion, namely, galvanic corrosion, crevice corrosion, and pitting corrosion are included. The article explains the corrosion of hafnium alloys such as hafnium-zirconium alloys and hafnium-tantalum alloys. It also deals with the applications of hafnium and its alloys in the nuclear and chemical industries.
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