Powder metallurgy compacting presses usually are mechanically or hydraulically driven, but they can incorporate a combination of mechanically, hydraulically, and pneumatically driven systems. This article provides a comparison of mechanical and hydraulic presses based on the cost, production rate, and machine overload protection. The article lists the classification of powder metallurgy parts based on complexity of shapes as suggested by the Metal Powder Industries Federation, such as Class I parts, Class II parts, Class III parts, and Class IV parts. It describes rigid tooling compaction and details the powder-fill ratio considerations for these classes. The article elaborates on the types of tooling systems and presses used for these classes. Some important factors and components used in designing a tool are also described. Finally, the article considers tool materials, including punches, core rods, and punch clamp rings.
Troy Robinson, Powder Metallurgy Presses and Tooling, Powder Metallurgy, Vol 7, ASM Handbook, Edited By P. Samal, J. Newkirk, ASM International, 2015, p 191–202, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006034
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