Atomization is the dominant method for producing metal and prealloyed powders from aluminum, brass, iron, low-alloy steels, stainless steels, tool steels, superalloys, titanium alloys, and other alloys. The general types of atomization processes encompass a number of industrial and research methods. This article describes the key process variables and production factors for the industrial methods: two-fluid, centrifugal, vacuum or soluble-gas, and ultrasonic atomization. It also reviews the effect of atomization methods and process variables on key powder characteristics such as the average particle size, particle size distribution or screen analysis, particle shape, chemical composition, and microstructure.
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