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This article discusses metal powder processing via hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and HIP cladding when metal powders are being employed in the cladding process. It traces the history of the process and details the equipment, pressing cycle, and densification mechanisms for HIP. The article describes the available process routes for fabricating products using HIP and the steps involved in the production of a part via direct HIP of encapsulated gas-atomized spherical powder. It concludes with information on the microstructures of 316L stainless steel HIP powder metallurgy valve body and a list of the mechanical properties of several powder metallurgy alloys.

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Stephen J. Mashl, Powder Metallurgy Processing by Hot Isostatic Pressing, Powder Metallurgy, Vol 7, ASM Handbook, Edited By P. Samal, J. Newkirk, ASM International, 2015, p 260–270,

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