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The residual porosity in sintered refractory metal ingots is usually eliminated by different densification processes, such as thermomechanical processes. This article focuses on thermomechanical processing of tungsten, molybdenum, and tantalum. It provides an overview of liquid-phase sintering of tungsten heavy alloys and describes the infiltration of tungsten and molybdenum for attaining full density. The article concludes by providing information on hot isostatic pressing of refractory metal alloys to full density.

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John A. Shields, Jr., Steven G. Caldwell, 2015. "Fully Dense Processing of Refractory Metal Powders", Powder Metallurgy, P. Samal, J. Newkirk

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