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Refractory metals are typically processed from powders into ingots that are subsequently swaged into round bars or rolled into plates. Secondary operations are required to fabricate more complex refractory metal components. This article discusses two such secondary operations, namely, machining and joining processes for tungsten, tungsten heavy alloys, molybdenum, tantalum, niobium, and rhenium components. It describes the various types of metal joining processes, including mechanical fastening, brazing, and welding.

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Steven G. Caldwell, H. Kestler, N. Reheis, Secondary Operations and Quality Control for Refractory Metal Powders, Powder Metallurgy, Vol 7, ASM Handbook, Edited By P. Samal, J. Newkirk, ASM International, 2015, p 620–624,

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