Measuring the thickness of thin films can be accomplished in many ways. This article focuses on the optical method of single-wavelength ellipsometry, two multiple-wavelength methods of reflectometry and spectroscopic ellipsometry for measuring the thickness of thin films. The general capabilities, principles and applications of ellipsometry and reflectometry are discussed in terms of nondestructive methods.
This article focuses on the testing and typical corrosion behavior of coating-substrate systems in aqueous solutions and humid aggressive atmospheres. It includes a short review of the fundamentals of corrosion, followed by a discussion of specific system behavior, electrochemical and laboratory accelerated tests, and simulated service tests. The article also contains examples of different types of corrosion damage and presents guidelines for improving corrosion resistance.