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This article discusses the fundamentals of thermal vaporization and condensation and provides information on the various vaporization sources and methods of vacuum deposition. It offers an overview of reactive evaporation and its deposition techniques. The article also explains the advantages, limitations, and applications of vacuum deposition processes. Finally, it provides information on the gas evaporation process, its processing chamber, and related systems.

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Donald M. Mattox, 1994. "Vacuum Deposition, Reactive Evaporation, and Gas Evaporation", Surface Engineering, C.M. Cotell, J.A. Sprague, F.A. Smidt, Jr.

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