Ion-beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) refers to the process wherein evaporated atoms produced by physical vapor deposition are simultaneously struck by an independently generated flux of ions. This article discusses the energy utilization of this process. It describes the physical and chemical processes occurring at the film-vacuum interface during IBAD and dual-ion-beam sputtering with illustrations. The article also reviews the methods used for large-area, high-volume implementation of IBAD and the modes of film formation for IBAD. It contains a table that presents information on deposition and synthesis of inorganic compounds by IBAD and concludes with a discussion on the improved coating properties, advantages, limitations, and applications of IBAD.
Graham K. Hubler, James K. Hirvonen, Ion-Beam-Assisted Deposition, Surface Engineering, Vol 5, ASM Handbook, Edited By C.M. Cotell, J.A. Sprague, F.A. Smidt, Jr., ASM International, 1994, p 593–601, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001290
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