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This article provides a useful guide for measuring residual macrostress on coatings. The most commonly used measurement methods are mechanical deflection, X-ray diffraction, and hole-drilling strain-gage. After a discussion on the origins of residual stress, the article describes the fundamental principles and presents examples of practical measurements for each method.

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J. Albert Sue, Gary S. Schajer, Stress Determination for Coatings, Surface Engineering, Vol 5, ASM Handbook, Edited By C.M. Cotell, J.A. Sprague, F.A. Smidt, Jr., ASM International, 1994, p 647–653,

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