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This article focuses on the types, composition, and applications of phosphate coatings and describes the characteristics of phosphate-coated ferrous and nonferrous materials, including steel and aluminum. It addresses five successive process fundamentals: cleaning, rinsing, phosphating, rinsing after phosphating, and chromic acid rinsing. The article describes the techniques for controlling the chemical composition of various phosphating solutions. It discusses the equipment and factors that influence equipment requirements in immersion and spray systems. The article also describes the controlling procedures of coating weight and crystal size. It provides guidelines for choosing phosphate coatings based on application, coating weight requirements, and recommended process parameters. The article concludes with a discussion on safety precautions and the treatment of effluents from phosphating plants.

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1994. "Phosphate Coatings", Surface Engineering, C.M. Cotell, J.A. Sprague, F.A. Smidt, Jr.

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