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This article focuses on alternatives to chromium in both hard chromium plating and chromate conversion coating. These include electroless nickel plating, nickel-tungsten composite electroplating, spray coating applications, and cobalt/molybdenum-base conversion coating. The article discusses the material and process substitutions that can be used to eliminate the use or emissions of chromium in industrial processes. It describes the physical characteristics of each coating, economics, environmental impacts, advantages, and disadvantages of alternative processes.

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Barry Meyers, Stephen Lynn, Elwin Jang, 1994. "Chromium Elimination in Surface Engineering", Surface Engineering, C.M. Cotell, J.A. Sprague, F.A. Smidt, Jr.

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