Ultrasonic cleaning involves the use of high-frequency sound waves that is above the upper range of human heating, or about 18 kHz, to remove a variety of contaminants from parts immersed in aqueous media. This article describes the process, design considerations and the equipment in ultrasonic cleaning. The components used in the generation of ultrasonic wave include piezoelectric and magnetostrictive transducers that are used in ultrasonic generators and tanks. The effects of solution type and its temperature on the effectiveness of ultrasonic cleaning are also discussed.
Jeff Hancock, Ultrasonic Cleaning, Surface Engineering, Vol 5, ASM Handbook, Edited By C.M. Cotell, J.A. Sprague, F.A. Smidt, Jr., ASM International, 1994, p 44–47, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001226
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