Ion implantation involves the bombardment of a solid material with medium-to-high-energy ionized atoms and offers the ability to alloy virtually any elemental species into the near-surface region of any substrate. This article describes the fundamentals of the ion implantation process and discusses the advantages, limitations, and applications of ion implantation. It also reviews a typical medium current semiconductor implanter adapted for implantation of metals with the aid of illustrations.
James K. Hirvonen, Bruce D. Sartwell, Ion Implantation, Surface Engineering, Vol 5, ASM Handbook, Edited By C.M. Cotell, J.A. Sprague, F.A. Smidt, Jr., ASM International, 1994, p 605–610, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001292
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