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Abstract

This article provides a detailed account of the various alkaline and acid plating baths used for electrolytic copper plating. Dilute cyanide and Rochelle cyanide baths, high-efficiency sodium and potassium cyanide baths, alkaline noncyanide copper plating baths, and alkaline copper pyrophosphate baths, are discussed. The article reviews acid plating baths such as copper sulfate bath and copper fluoborate bath. It also presents information on the surface preparation considerations, bath composition, and operating variables of copper plating as well as the equipment used.

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